HYDROGENATED NICKEL FIRST BAKE – á la Bolognese.
In this short paper, www.Lookingforheat.com present an accessible low-pressure Nickel pre-treatment technique for consideration and comment. Be aware that process is presented as a first step only, and does not preclude or exclude further treatments.
Buying odd bottles of unlabelled wine, little is certain about its storage history, grape variety, fermentation style or vintage. Such wine may have been made last week or in the last millennium, cellared in ideal conditions or left sitting by a steam-pipe in a hot kitchen. Unlike the wine buyer, we seek uniformity, not variety. ‘Corked’ Nickel is bad Nickel.
This process considered macroscopically is meant to reduce surface oxidation, moisture content, and volatiles left over from the manufacture. We think of this process as a basic ‘washing’ method. At the sub-microscopic level, it may as a bonus change both the physical form of the particles and incorporate at least some Hydrogen into the Nickel clusters. These photographs are not ‘studio shots’, but taken in a rather crowded, busy lab as the process was carried out for the first time. Improvements to the equipment, gas seals and valves based on this experience are in hand.
2. Catalytic Carbon Hydrogen Generator
3. Gas Manifold Isolating Valves
4. Gas Drier (contains 700 gr. Silica gel beads)
5. Voltcraft 2-channel digital thermometer reading from flasks 2 and 7
6. Hydrogen Bleed-off Valve
7. Vacuum Flask for Ni Powder surrounded by insulating ‘doughnut’
8. Single-Stage Vacuum Pump. (0.01 Mbar) METHODOLOGY
Recipe Nickel Bolognese
Step 1. Heat Ni powder at 300C under vacuum for 1 hour, shaking flask every five minutes.
Step 2. Break vacuum by flooding flask with dry Hydrogen gas at atmospheric pressure while Ni is hot. Leave one hour to cool.
Step 3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for a total of 3 cycles.
Step 4. Store under Hydrogen until required for use.
Here you can see the thick-walled borosilicate vacuum flask containing 10 grams of Norilsk Nickel powder. The flask also contains a K-Type thermocouple sealed into a copper tube with Silicon Rubber. The tc is linked to a Voltcraft thermometer.
The flask is held firmly in contact with a 1500W hotplate by a retort clamp, which is loosened every five minutes (while still under heat and vacuum) to enable shaking the contents to expose fresh powder surfaces. The white ‘doughnut’ of ceramic wadding helps to retain and concentrate the heat from the hotplate.
The method described is based on conversations with LENR replicators in part, but mainly on the following paper, kindly brought to our attention by a fellow researcher. It provides a very thorough overview of the reduction reaction dynamics at a broad range of temperatures. We chose 300C as our target temperature as it was readily achievable with the equipment to hand and suggests a ‘better than 50% ‘de-oxidation profile for each of the three 60-minute heat cycles used, approaching 90% in all. This seems to offer a good starting point for the subsequent steps in fuel preparation.
Nickel Oxide Reduction by Hydrogen: Kinetics and Structural Transformations
Khachatur V. Manukyan, Arpi G. Avetisyan, Christopher E. Shuck, Hakob A. Chatilyan, Sergei Rouvimov, Suren L. Kharatyan and Alexander S. Mukasyan.
Adding The Hydrogen
Since the EU/UK requires both fire department certification and additional insurance certification (related to storage and fire department access) to store Hydrogen cylinders we used Hydrogen created ‘de novo’ by the Catalytic Carbon process. This system requires a temperature of around 80C to operate, and provided abundant Hydrogen – so much that we required a bleed-off valve (6) visible in the equipment photograph. This valve also enables flame- testing of the hydrogen to check on gas purity. The gas-drier (4) provides a proven and very effective barrier to flashbacks into the large flask.
All the materials required to make Hydrogen this way can be purchased, and more useful information about Catalytic Carbon found on our website. ‘Lookingforheat’ has a ‘research use’ licence for this patented technology granted by Howard Phillips, the inventor.
As can be seen in these two pictures, Hydrogen is very freely evolved. The process is exothermic once started, and the thermometer shows how readily the flask temperature exceeds the 80C target, and how flushing Hydrogen over the Nickel powder rapidly cools it.
At the operating temperature of the Catalytic Carbon system, a considerable amount of low-temperature steam is generated, but tests on the gas stream after it is emitted from the drier show this to be an effective method of removing it.
/ Alan Smith
Nickel Bolognese (Hydrogenated Nickel) can be ordered via the Chemical sections of our web store.
As always, you can contact us for quotes on bespoke orders.
We also provide the Catalytic Carbon Research Validation Kit for Hydrogen On Demand production.